Waste types, classification and composition

25.1.1 Waste classification Radioactive wastes were originally classified into high, medium and low level, but as the nuclear industry has progressed, additional categories have been introduced and some have been sub-divided (Table 25.1) . Having well-defined classifications is important, as these frequently form the basis on which national governments base their legislation relating to the disposal routes for radioactive wastes.

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Impact on foods

Radioactive materials released from the Fukushima NPP have contami­nated leaves of plants exposed to the air and also is very likely to be in the stems of plants adsorbing nutrients from the contaminated soil. As a result, radioactive materials may enter the food chain for human consumption. Between mid-March 2011 and February 8, 2012, three categories of foods were sampled […]

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Effects of released radiation on food, environment and human health

The Fukushima NPP accident resulted in the spread of radionuclides into the atmosphere. The radionuclides were volatilized by the high temperature in the reactor core and during the explosions and fires. In addition, seawater containing non-volatile activation products and fuel rod materials may have been released into the subsurface and ocean environment [22]. The fate and potential transport mechanisms of […]

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Forecast of Fukushima radioactive contamination over the next 20 years

On December 16, 2011, TEPCO confirmed that the release of radioactive materials was under control and that radiation doses were being signifi­cantly reduced [5]. In April 2012, the predicted equivalent radiation doses per year for areas near the Fukushima Daiichi NPP for the next 20 years were released [20]. As shown in Plate XIII (between pages 448 and 449), a […]

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Global dispersion and transport

The spread of radioactive pollutants was not confined to Japan. Due to the prevailing westerlies during the accident, the radioactive nuclides had the potential to be transported offshore, across the Pacific Ocean, and further to the North American continent. Monitoring of seawater, soil and atmos­phere was being done at 25 locations on the plant site, 12 locations on the boundary, […]

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Dispersion and transport of radioactive materials

24.1.1 Regional dispersion According to the May 24, 2012 press release from TEPCO, radioactivity levels of noble gases, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 released into the air as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident from March 12-31,2011 were ~5 x 1017,5 x 1017,1 x 1016 and 1 x 1016Bq, respectively [5]. Since the devices capable of directly measuring the […]

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