Acid value

The acid value measures the content of free acids in the sample, which have influence on fuel ag­ing. It is measured in terms of the quantity of KOH required to neutralize sample. The base cata­lyzed reaction is reported to be very sensitive to the content of free fatty acids, which should not exceed a certain limit recommended to avoid deactivation of catalyst, formation of soaps and emulsion [Sharma et al., 2008, Meher et al., 2004]. The feedstock acid values obtained in this study differed significantly ranging from 1.86 to 3.31 mg KOH/g oil. Thus, in the light of the previous discussion on the requirements for the feedstock acid values, it could be concluded that frying oil had the values above the recommended 2 mg KOH/g. However, these values did not turn out to be limiting for the efficiency of the applied two-stage process, as it will be discussed along to the obtained product yields and purity later on. Acid values of MEs were less than 0.5 mg KOH/ g specified as the maximum value according to JUS EN14214 (Table 4), Sharma et al. (2008) re­viewed the literature and found that acid value of the feedstock for alkaline transesterification has to be reduced to less than 2 mg KOH/g (i. e. 1%), while only few examples of transesterifica­tion with feedstock acid value of up to 4.0 mg KOH/g (i. e. 2%) were found. They also reported that when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, the limit of free fatty acids is a bit relaxed and the value a little beyond 1% (i. e. 2 mg KOH/g) did not have any effect on the methyl ester conver­sion. Acid values of MEs produced from frying oil was 1.16 mgKOH/g when compared with 0.5 mg KOH/g specified as the maximum value according to JUS EN14214 [JUS EN 14214:2004].

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