Fixed bed gasifier

Depending on the direction of the flows of carbonaceous fuel and oxidant (air or steam), fixed bed gasifier can be further categorized into updraft or downdraft reactor. In the up­draft (counter-current) version of the fixed bed gasifier, biomass enters from the top while gasifying agent from the bottom. The biomass moves down the reactor through zones of drying (100oC), pyrolysis (300oC), gasification (900oC) and finally oxidation zone (1400oC) [18]. Although this mode of gasifier is often associated with high tar content in the exit gas, recent advances in tar cracking demonstrated that very low tar level is achievable [31]. The direct heat exchange of the oxidizing agent with the entering fuel feed results in low gas exit temperature and hence high thermal efficiency [18, 23]. The downdraft (co-current) gasifier has very similar design as the updraft reactor, except the carbonaceous fuel and oxidizing agent flow in the same direction. In comparison to the updraft gasifier, the downdraft reac­tor has lower tar content in the exit gas but exhibit lower thermal efficiency [23]. Due to the size limitation in the constriction (where most of the gasification occurs) of the reactor, this mode of gasifier is considered unsuitable for large scale operation [18].

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