Conclusions & Future Endeavor

J. curcas owing to its remarkable features appears to be a suitable valuable option to meet energy demands world. Low technology inputs are requirements during cultivation step, where most of the management actions are done manually (pruning and harvesting, mainly), to harness oil reduces the investment required to generate a unit quantity of biofuels.

Multiple energy carriers of Jatropha plants and oil expelled from its seeds are not only useful in mitigating the environmental pollution but also support for employ­ment generation and entrepreneurship development. Apart from Jatropha use as potential energy crop, industrial application and soil conservation measures can also promote its cultivation on the barren and unused land. As energy crop, blending with petro-diesel and proper processing has already demonstrated its use as an alter­native fuel in motive and stationary diesel engines. Proper commercialization and utilization of by-products of biodiesel such as press-cake and glycerine oil cake can make Jatropha cultivation and oil production economically more feasible.

A better overall efficient development of J. curcas production system can be achieved, if knowledge gulf regarding fundamental agronomic characteristics, employment of best cultivation and management practices, the improvement of energy carriers and processing of oil protocols and the input/output balances at all these stages are addressed into. A deep analysis of cultivation processes will help in understanding intercropping and monoculture growth variables as well as looking for sustainability indicators in these two production systems.

A better in-depth understanding of the eco-physiology of the plant is required so to gain insight into its nutrient requirements for maximum net primary productivity and oil production, nutrient cycling, impact on biota of soil (Achten et al. 2008), plant-soil relationship, and foliar nutrient content of Jatropha (Daey Ouwens et al. 2007; Chaudhary et al. 2008) which is essential for domestication of the plant, its water use efficiencies, its potential and actual energy.

Apart from these mentioned concern, also environmental impact assessments have not been carried out exhaustively yet (Achten et al. 2008). Impacts on soil structure and its water-holding capacity, organic content and soil biological activity needs detailed investigation as well. Research for understanding plant energy efficiency under different agro-climatic condition and to improve its yield needs to be carried out (Daey Ouwens et al. 2007).

Jatropha bioenergy development has many potential benefits although having some negative impacts also. Development of this sector calls for execution of well balanced policies which can reduce the negative effects and maximize positive ones. Of positive effects some are:

1. Agricultural output diversification

2. Higher income for farmers

3. Poverty reduction

4. Rural development stimulation,

5. Employment in rural areas

6. Infrastructure development

7. Increased investment in land rehabilitation

8. Lower GHG emissions

9. Generation of new revenues from agricultural residues, wood use, and from carbon credits

On the other hand, some potential negative effects are:

1. Replacement of subsistence farmland with energy crops will result in reduction in local food availability.

2. Increase in deforestation to meet land demand for energy crops will lead to forest ecosystems degradation and decrease in biodiversity as well.

3. Degradation of soil fertility and quality due to intensive cultivation of bioenergy crops.

4. Pollutants as well as GHG emissions will register an increase.

5. Modifications to requirements for vehicles and fuel infrastructure.

Nonetheless, with the current emphasis on alternative renewable fuels due to the soaring fossil energy prices as their reserves continue to dwindle and the per­spective on global climate change, the potential role of Jatropha to meet energy services of world will warrant it beyond doubt to be one of the energy plants of future.

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