## Proposed Leaf Scrapping Machine

The model was adapted to process A. comosus leaves from the first and second crops, which present different quantities of leaves (an average of 69 leaves in plants of the first crop and 105 leaves in plants of the second crop), as well as leaf lengths varying from 30 to 140 cm (Fig. 7.1). The machine’s dimensions are 105 cm long, 64 cm wide, and 90 cm high (Fig. 7.2a), with an approximate weight of 50 kg. It is easily

Fig. 7.3 Operation system of the proposed machine for shredding A. comosus leaves. (a) pineapple leaves before shredding, (b) first step of shredding (c) pineapple leaves after shredding or fiber obtained, (d) introduction of leaf tips (e) taken out backwards of leaf tips (f) introduction of leaf base and (g) and taken out backwards of leaf base or fiber exposure |

transportable by a pickup car. A wooden cover for the machine was designed in order to avoid the risk of accidents when the machine’s drum is working (Fig. 7.2a).

The scrapping machine has a drum (27.5 cm in diameter and 29 cm long) on a

4.5 cm diameter axis at the base of the machine. The axis is placed on two bearing benches (Fig. 7.2b). The drum has nine metallic teeth separated 9.5 cm from one another (Fig. 7.2c). The drum is rotated by a four-stroke petrol Honda engine, GX-120 model, with a cylinder capacity of 118 cc. The axis rotates at a minimum speed of 1,400 rpm and a maximum speed of 3,600 rpm, with a power of 4 HP. The transmission of the movement of the engine’s main axis is performed by a system of pulleys and a belt. The main engine’s axis has a 5 cm diameter pulley, and onto the axis crossing the drum, there is a 29.5 cm diameter pulley connected by a B-55 belt (Fig. 7.2d).

The machine was put to work by introducing 4-6 pineapple leaves tip first (Fig. 7.3a). The worker must hold the leaves from the base. Once half the length of the leaf has been introduced (Fig. 7.3d), it must be taken out backwards (Fig. 7.3e). At this stage, the leaf fiber is separated from the parenchymal tissue (Fig. 7.3b). Later, the worker holds the leaves by the already shredded extreme (Fig. 7.3f) and introduces them their bases first until reaching the exposed fiber (Fig. 7.3g). Then, the leaves are taken out with the fiber completely extracted (Fig. 7.3c).