Blue Tower technology

The characteristics of the BT process are similar to the indirect gasification process with a pyrolyzer. This gasifier has three reactors for the preheating process, the reforming process and the pyrolysis process. The gasifier has the following characteristics; 1) pyrolysis reactions take place in the pyrolyzer, 2) pyrolysis gases are reformed by H2O (steam), 3) heat required for their reactions is supplied by combustion of off-gas, Tar and Char. Additional heat through a chip boiler might be required in order to accelerate the reactions well. With regard to the gasification performance, the gaseous yield and concentration are dependent upon the kinds of materials, the operating temperature, and the inner pressure (Muhlen et al., 1999, Mayer et al., 2004). Here, in order to evaluate the reliability of each fuel production, we fabricated an apparatus, which included the concept of the BT process (a pyrolyzer and a reformer), and we executed the basic chemical experiments using the biomass samples with the size of 2-3 mm. In the experiments, we measured the syngas components and estimated the equilibrium constants, adjusting the temperature condition and/or steam-carbon ratio (S/ C). Also, we ensured the reliability of our simulator which was available for some analyses on the energy cost and/or CO2 intensity etc. comparing our calculation to the demo-plant data. Assuming that the materials chopped at the size of 20-30 mm are fed into the reactor, H2 of 54.4 vol.% and CO of 24.4 vol.% were generated at 950°C and Steam/ Carbon=1.0 due to our simulator (Dowaki et al., 2007). On the other hand, we executed the studies in order to confirm the absolute proof of the chemical equilibrium reactions, and/or the heat balance in use of the experimental apparatus and/or the demo — plant (1t/d scale) at Izumo, shimane prefecture in Japan. Likewise, the studies on the handling of equipment (the plant operation) have been done at Izumo. In the previous studies, we made the simulator of BT process in order to estimate the operational performance. This simulation program used the parameters estimated by the experimental results of a room condition. Also, the estimation accuracy due to the simulator was analysed. For instance, Kameyama et al. compared the operational result of the demo-plant to that of the simulator. Accordingly, we made sure that the simulated data were corresponding with the practice data to some extent (Kameyama et al., 2010).

Here, we describe the system outline and the performance characteristics of this process which was evaluated through the demonstrated operation with 1t/d plant (see Fig. 2) of the Blue Tower gasification process.

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