Volatility of biobutanol-gasoline blends

The vapour pressure of biobutanol and bioethanol is very low compared to gasoline. A disadvantage of the bioethanol use is a formation of volatile azeotropic mixtures of ethanol and hydrocarbons present in the gasoline which causes the increase in the vapour pressure of gasoline in the range of 6 — 8 kPa (Muzikova et al., 2009). The formation of azeotropes occurs in the concentration up to 10% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline but the highest increase in the vapour pressure is as low as 0.5 kPa at 5% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline. At higher biobutanol concentrations, another volatile and/or oxygen compound has to be added to compensate vapour pressure decrease and to keep good engine startability. The formation of azeotropes is also associated with decrease of the boiling points of the blends. While the addition of bioethanol influences negatively the distillation curve profile, biobutanol has minor effect on the distillation curve.

Because of the use of different gasolines in several European Union countries, the mixing of different oxygen compounds in the vehicle tank can occur, causing the simultaneous presence of ethers like MTBE and ETBE and other alcohols, especially ethanol, in combination with biobutanol in the gasoline. Ethers do not cause problems since their properties are close to hydrocarbons. They influence the vapour pressure of the butanol — gasoline blend proportionally according to the initial vapour pressure of pure components. On the contrary, bioethanol forms azeotropes, which can unpredictably change the vapour pressure of the mixture. The increase of vapour pressure depends on the final ethanol concentration in the mixture.

Biobutanol has significantly higher heat of vaporization than gasoline, which reduces the temperature of the air/fuel mixture and results in higher engine volumetric efficiency. At the same time it leads to lower compression temperature and longer ignition delay, which in turn may decrease the engine performance. The low vapour pressure and higher heat of vaporization is experienced to have a negative effect on the startability and cold start engine performance because of difficult fuel vaporization at low ambient temperatures (Xiaolong et al., 2009).

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *