(Sequencing by Oligo Ligation Detection) SOLiD was purchased by Ap­plied Biosystems in 2006. The sequencer adopts the technology of two — base sequencing based on ligation sequencing. On a SOLiD flowcell, the libraries can be sequenced by 8 base-probe ligation which contains liga­tion site (the first base), cleavage site (the fifth base), and 4 different fluo­rescent dyes (linked to the last base) [10]. The fluorescent signal will be recorded during the probes complementary to the template strand and van­ished by the cleavage of probes’ last 3 bases. And the sequence of the frag­ment can be deduced after 5 round of sequencing using ladder primer sets.

The read length of SOLiD was initially 35 bp reads and the output was 3 G data per run. Owing to two-base sequencing method, SOLiD could reach a high accuracy of 99.85% after filtering. At the end of 2007, ABI released the first SOLiD system. In late 2010, the SOLiD 5500xl sequenc­ing system was released. From SOLiD to SOLiD 5500xl, five upgrades were released by ABI in just three years. The SOLiD 5500xl realized im­proved read length, accuracy, and data output of 85 bp, 99.99%, and 30 G per run, respectively. A complete run could be finished within 7 days. The sequencing cost is about $40 * 10-9 per base estimated from reagent use only by BGI users. But the short read length and resequencing only in applications is still its major shortcoming [13]. Application of SOLiD in­cludes whole genome resequencing, targeted resequencing, transcriptome research (including gene expression profiling, small RNA analysis, and whole transcriptome analysis), and epigenome (like ChIP-Seq and methyl — ation). Like other NGS systems, SOLiD’s computational infrastructure is expensive and not trivial to use; it requires an air-conditioned data center, computing cluster, skilled personnel in computing, distributed memory cluster, fast networks, and batch queue system. Operating system used by most researchers is GNU/LINUX. Each solid sequencer run takes 7 days and generates around 4 TB of raw data. More data will be generated after bioinformatics analysis. This information is listed and compared with other NGS systems in Tables 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c). Automation can be used in library preparations, for example, Tecan system which integrated a Co — varis A and Roche 454 REM e system [14].

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