Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy

23.2.1 Sources, types and classification of radioactive waste

In Japan, RAW is categorized as shown in Table 23.14 . In May 2007, the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) issued a document which pro­vides for upper bounds of concentration of radioactive elements in waste packages from power reactors and in TRU waste packages. The upper bounds of concentration of radioactive elements are so decided, that the


Origin of

Disposal method

High-level radioactive waste

Reprocessing plant

Deep geological disposal (>300 m)




Waste power reactor

Relatively higher level

Nuclear power plant

Sub-surface disposal (50-100 m)

Lower level

Near-surface disposal with artificial barrier

Very low level

Near-surface disposal without artificial barrier


Reprocessing plant, MOX fuel fabrication plant

Deep geological, sub-surface and near-surface disposal

Uranium waste

Enrichment plant, fuel fabrication plant and conversion and refining plant

Not yet decided

Rl and research waste

Research facility Rl utilizing facility

Deep geological, sub-surface and near-surface disposal


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public exposure due to waste packages is well within the reference value, and that the upper bounds conform to the latest knowledge in the interna­tional community. Based on these concepts, disposal of RAW is categorized into Category 1 Waste disposal (geological disposal) and Category 2 Waste disposal (sub-surface disposal, near-surface disposal with artificial barrier and near-surface disposal without artificial barrier).

Concerning the waste that does not need to be dealt with as RAW, the NSC has studied the clearance level of radionuclide concentrations and its calculation method, by reference to the ICRP document (Pub. 46, 1985) and IAEA-TECDOC-855, respectively.

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