Geological disposal of high level waste (HLW)

Under the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution [9], the competent nuclear facility author­ity under the State Council (National Atomic Energy Agency), in conjunc­tion with environmental competent authority under the State Council, has been developing a programme for the siting of a HLW geological disposal facility (GDF). The siting programme is based on the geological conditions, the solid RAW disposal needs, and the associated need for an environmen­tal impact assessment. This programme cannot be implemented without the approval of the State Council. Based on such a programme, the relevant local governments would provide construction land for the solid RAW repository and take effective steps to support the disposal of such waste. Disposal of solid RAW on any inland river and or marine environment is prohibited. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution defines that HLW shall be disposed of in a centralized deep geological repository.

The ‘Guidance on Siting of Radioactive Waste Geological Repository’ states that the basic aim is to select a site suitable for disposal of HLW, where the disposal facility and waste package would be able to effectively isolate radionuclides from entering into the biosphere over geological timescales. The site could provide one or more natural barriers to keep the adverse impacts on the population and the environment at the acceptable level specified by the national regulatory body. Studies of deep geological disposal of HLW in China began in 1985, when the initial R&D programme was initiated under the auspices of the former MNI in respect of engineer­ing, geological, chemical and safety issues. Experimental facilities were established to simulate the chemical environment of potential geological disposal environments. At the same time, a preliminary safety assessment of geological disposal was launched. A study on the pre-siting of HLW disposal facility was also conducted. Preliminary regional comparisons have been performed for five regions: East China, South China, Southeast China, Inner Mongolia and Northwest China. However, the characterization work has focused on Northwest China.

In 2006, the Guides on Research and Development Planning of Geologi­cal Disposal of HLW were issued jointly by China Atomic Energy Admin­istration (CAEA), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), and China’s regulator the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA). The overall purpose of the study on geological disposal of HLW in China is to select the potential site with stable geological and suitable socio-economic environment and then to complete the construction of the country’s geological disposal facility for solid HLW in a manner that pro­tects the environment and the public from unacceptable hazards through the containment and retardation effects of engineered and geological barriers.

Under these guidelines, geological disposal of HLW R&D is divided into three stages:

1. laboratory R&D and siting of the disposal facility (2006-2020),

2. underground experimentation (2021-2040), and

3. demonstration of a prototype disposal facility and demonstration and construction of such disposal facility (2041-mid-21st century).

Around 2020, the following tasks are expected to be completed:

• the in-laboratory R&D project involving multidisciplinary fields,

• preliminary siting of a disposal facility,

• a feasibility study for an underground laboratory, and a safety review for construction of an underground laboratory.

Around 2040, the following tasks will be completed:

• R&D for the underground laboratory,

• preliminary confirmation of the disposal facility site,

• pre-feasibility study report of disposal facility, and

• feasibility study and safety review of prototype disposal facility.

From 2040 to the mid-twenty-first century, the following objectives would be achieved:

1. demonstration experiments of the prototype disposal facility,

2. final confirmation of disposal facility site,

3. feasibility study of the disposal facility and safety assessment for the disposal facility construction,

4. disposal facility construction, and

5. the safety review for disposal facility operation.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *