Low and intermediate level radioactive waste

Low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) arises mainly from NPP operation and nuclear technology applications. Radioactive waste pro­duced from operating NPPs is principally from the following:

• main process equipment and waste treatment equipment, including sec­ondary waste from loop leakage or drainage and waste treatment systems, which includes airborne and liquid radioactive wastes,

• technical maintenance during operation,

• protective articles such as shielding, equipment and miscellaneous scrap replaced during the daily operation.

Table 22.4 Disposal-based radioactive waste categorization system

Подпись: Solid HLW Solid a waste Solid ILW Solid LLW Uranium (thorium) mining and milling waste Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) waste Подпись: Centralized disposal Centralized disposal Regional near-surface disposal Regional near-surface disposal Backfilling, damming, centralized landfill Backfilling, damming, centralized landfill

Waste category Disposal approach

The wastes arising from nuclear technology applications refers to con­taminants that arise from the applications of radioisotopes and irradiation technology in industry, agriculture, medicine, research and teaching, which contain:

• man-made radionuclides with specific activity higher than 2 x 104 Bq/kg;

• or NORM wastes with specific activity higher than 7.4 x 104 Bq/kg;

• or abandoned/discarded wastes arising from the above-mentioned activ­ities with surface contamination levels exceeding the regulatory limits.

Such LILW is widely distributed, of a wide variety, and usually in small amounts.

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