Low-level waste (LLW)

LLW is waste with low long-lived radionuclide concentrations and interme­diate short-lived radionuclide concentrations. LLW consists of waste con­taminated with unirradiated uranium from the NFC and waste contaminated with irradiated uranium in the form of activation and fission products from isotope production and the operation of the SAFARI research reactor and short-lived sealed sources with limited activity levels (sealed sources that would not exceed the inherent intrusion dose of 10 mSv/a after the institu­tional control period).

The long-lived radionuclide (Ti/2 > 30.2 years) concentrations are limited to 400 Bq/g and 4,000 Bq/g for a and в у emitters, respectively. Factor of ten higher concentration levels are allowed per waste package. Deviation from the above long-lived radionuclide concentration criteria is justifiable in the case of a specific repository if the inherent intrusion dose is less than 10 mSv/a after the institutional control period. For LLW with higher con­centrations of short-lived activation and fission products, containers are shielded to ensure surface dose rates of <2 mSv/h. LLW could be pre-treated in unshielded containers in case the surface dose is <2 mSv/h or if the surface dose rate will be <2 mSv/h after waste treatment (e. g., decay). LLW shall be processed to ensure a solid waste form and a waste package that is in compliance with the approved waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the national near-surface repository of South Africa (Vaalputs) that is suitable for handling, transport and storage for a period of 10 years. LLW shall be disposed of at Vaalputs near-surface repository.

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