The first step in mitigating the risks posed by the tanks is to remove the waste, particularly focusing on the older single-shell tanks (as opposed to an inner and outer double-shell tank with space in between for containing and monitoring any leakage). This was already accomplished at Hanford where nearly 11.3 million L (3 million gallons) of liquids that could be removed from single-shell tanks physically and cost-effectively were retrieved and moved into double-shell tanks. At other sites, tanks have been emptied to the maximum extent practicable and then backfilled with con­crete or grout to stabilize the small amount of contamination remaining. Since 2002, seven 1.1 million L (300,000 gallon) underground storage tanks and four smaller 111,000 L (30,000 gallon) ancillary tanks at the INL have been emptied, cleaned, and filled with concrete. In addition, two 4.9 million L (1.3 million gallon) SRS tanks were closed and grouted in 1997, and an additional two were filled with concrete in 2012.

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