Commercial sector

Owners and operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other types of facilities manage the SNF and radioactive waste they generate at their facilities prior to disposal. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposal of SNF. US federal or state governments regulate waste disposal sites. Government custody may occur at different stages of the waste management process depending on the type of RAW and generating activity, including decommissioning activities.

Successful management of SNF and RAW requires careful integration among power or research reactors, waste generators, storage facilities, treat­ment facilities, and disposal sites, as well as their transportation interfaces. Integration is achieved through interface management, such as specified waste acceptance criteria. Acceptance requirements define the interfaces, allowing generators and disposers to have a common understanding of the waste. The United States recognizes the importance of this integration and manages the interfaces between various steps (e. g., storage, transportation, and disposal).

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