Current state of RAW management in Ukraine

RAW management at Ukrainian NPP

Storage facilities of standard design are built and operated at NPP sites for low-, intermediate- and high-level solid and liquid RAW as well as compac­tion, deep evaporation and decontamination facilities.

Liquid waste is treated at active water treatment systems, and then treated water returns to the technological process, and final treatment prod­ucts (secondary waste such as evaporation bottoms, slurry, spent sorbents and salt fusion cake) are transferred to liquid waste storage facilities for cooling and temporary storage. For this purpose, NPPs use storage facilities in the form of iron tanks located in separate buildings.

To collect and temporarily store solid waste resulting from operation of NPP units, storage facilities located in separate buildings are used. Storage facilities are a series of concrete cells, which are lined with 4 mm stainless steel and equipped with biological protection. The thickness of the protec­tion ranges from 600 to 1500 mm, depending on the specific activity of the waste. The depth of the cells ranges from 5 to 18 m. The waste is stored in bulk form in this type of storage facilities.

The following types of waste processing facilities are operated at Ukrain­ian NPPs:

• deep evaporator for processing of evaporation bottoms;

• solid waste incinerator for processing of solid low level radioactive waste;

• solid waste compactor unit for processing of solid low level radioactive waste;

• solid waste sorting unit for processing of solid low level radioactive waste;

• centrifugation system for processing of floor drains;

• radioactive oil incinerator.

However, each Ukrainian NPP is equipped with these facilities to different extents. Table 11.10 provides information on waste processing facilities, which operate at NPPs in Ukraine (SNRCU, 2009).

It is planned that a waste processing complex will be commissioned at Zaporozhie NPP. The incinerator, the compactor unit and the defragmenta­tion unit are being designed. The Zaporozhie NPP solid waste storage facilities are 70% full. To extend the volume of the storage facilities by 30%, a new storage facility intended for storage of containers with salt fusion cake to be removed from storage facilities is being constructed.

At Rovno NPP, the following design activities of the solid waste process­ing plant are underway, in particular: retrieval facility, fragmentation and sorting facility, super-compactor and radiation monitoring system in waste management.

Table 11.10 Waste processing facilities at Ukrainian NPPs

Waste processing facility

Zaporozhie

NPP

Rovno NPP

South

Ukraine NPP

Khmelnitsky

NPP

Evaporator

Yes

(Two units)

Yes

(Two units)

No

Yes

Incinerator

Yes

No

No

No

Compactor

Yes

No

Yes

No

Sorting unit

Yes

No

No

No

Centrifuge

system

No

Yes

No

Yes

Oil incinerator

No

No

No

Yes

The following conclusions were drawn in SNRCU (2009) , as a result of the safety assessment of waste management at NPPs:

• operating NPPs have technical capacities to temporarily store solid and liquid waste (also for extension of power unit operation lifetime) and to monitor its storage;

• the interaction with specialized enterprises dealing with disposal of waste should be expedited with regard to the waste acceptance criteria for storage or disposal.

RAW management in the non-nuclear sector

At the present time, the State Interregional Specialized Plants (SISP) of the UkrSA ‘Radon’ are intended mainly for non-fuel cycle waste storage. They carry out the following types of operation:

• storage of liquid and solid waste and spent ionizing radiation sources of industrial, medical, and scientific and research institutions;

• waste transportation, as well as spent ionizing radiation sources from their collection and temporary storage locations;

• elimination of possible radiological consequences of accidents which may be connected with lost radiation sources or legacy waste location.

Each SISP of the UkrSA ‘Radon’ operates vault-type storage facilities for solid radioactive waste, well-type storage facilities for ionizing radiation sources, and tank-type storage facilities for liquid waste.

The vault-type storage facilities are used for storage of SRAW in bulk form. They are a series of reinforced concrete cells. A separate cell has dimensions of 14.5 x 9.5 x 3.0 m and capacity of 400 m3. Several such storage facilities can be located on SISP sites. Well-type storage facilities for ion­izing radiation sources are built as an underground tank which is connected to the surface by a winding pipe 104 mm in diameter. The tank and the con­nective pipe are made of stainless steel and are concreted at a 6 m depth. The receiving device is provided with a plug and metal cover. Storage facili­ties for liquid radioactive waste are underground cylindrical tanks 9 m in diameter and 3.15 m in height. They are made of stainless steel and coated with reinforced concrete.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *