Inventory of accumulated waste

RAW of nuclear energy sector

NPPs are currently the main radioactive waste producers in the Ukraine, producing liquid and solid RAW. The main sources of primary liquid radioactive waste (LRAW) from NPPs are pipelines leakages, water from spent nuclear fuel storage pools, solutions remaining after sorbent regen­eration and spent decontamination solutions. The product of primary LRAW reprocessing (except for spent filtering materials and sludge) is concentrated salt solutions, which are exposed to deep evaporation, result­ing in a fusion cake.

The volume of LRAW at Ukrainian NPPs per 109 kW h of the generated electricity is evaluated to be (Shestopalov et al, 2008):

• evaporation bottoms: about 13 m3

• filtering materials and sludge: about 8 m3

• fusion cake: about 2.4m3

• oil and mixed solutes: 0.45 m3

The isotope composition of LRAW is mostly: 90Sr, 90Y, 134Cs, 137Cs, which come from untight heat-emitting elements, and 58Co, 60Co, 54Mn, 59Fe, 51Cr, 124Sb, which are formed by neutron activation of pipes and contour corro­sion products.

Specific activities of LRAW are within the following range:

• evaporation bottoms and fusion cake: from 1010 to 1011 Bq m-3;

• filtering materials and sludge: from 109 to 1010Bqm-3.

Table 11.3 presents the data related to LRAW accumulated at Ukrainian NPPs as of mid-2008 (NatRep, 2008).

The sources of solid radioactive waste (SRAW) from NPPs are worn-out equipment, apparatus and instruments; dismantled equipment and pipe­lines, construction materials and debris; used individual protection means; elastron, electric — and heat insulation materials; ventilation system spent filters, and sludge from treatment facilities. In addition, NPPs store spent ionizing radiation sources.

The isotope composition of SRAW waste is mostly: 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 95Nb, 54Mn, 51Cr, 59Fe.

Table 11.3 Liquid radioactive waste at Ukrainian NPPs as of mid-2008

NPP

Evaporation bottoms (m3)

Filtering materials (m3)

Fusion cake (m3)

Zaporozhie

2,100

350

5,400

South Ukraine

2,850

230

Rovno

5,160

525

770

Khmelnitsky

450

155

780

Total

10,670

1,260

6,950

The volume of SRAW at Ukrainian NPPs per 109 kW h of the generated electricity is evaluated to be (Shestopalov et al., 2008):

• low level waste (LLW): about 30 m3

• intermediate level waste (ILW): about 1.0 m3

• high level waste (HLW): about 0.1 m3

Table 11.4 presents the data related to SRAW accumulated at Ukrainian NPPs as of mid-2008 (NatRep, 2008).

Non-nuclear sector RAW

The State Interregional Specialized Plants (SISP) of the Ukrainian State Association ‘Radon’ (UkrSA ‘Radon’) deal with collection, transportation, storage and disposal of RAW from Ukrainian enterprises, medical and research institutions, including ionizing radiation sources. SISP are located near Dnipropetrovsk, Kyiv, Lviv, Odessa and Kharkiv (Fig.11.1).

Table 11.5 presents the data related to radioactive waste accumulated at SISP of the UkrSA ‘Radon’ as of mid-2008 (NatRep, 2008).

Two research reactors in Ukraine (Fig. 11.1) store liquid and solid radio­active wastes on site:

• reactor WWR-M of the Nuclear Research Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv);

• reactor IR-100 of the National Institute for Nuclear Energy and Indus­try (Sevastopol).

RAW in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

As a result of the accident at unit 4 of ChNPP, a large quantity of radioac­tive material was released and distributed over a huge territory. Most of these materials remain inside the unit above which the ‘Shelter’ object has been built, and within a local area (the so-called ‘Shelter’ object site) that surrounds the ruined unit and ChNPP site. According to a first estimate, the

Table 11.4 Solid radioactive waste at Ukrainian NPPs as of mid-2008

NPP

LLW (m3)

ILW (m3)

HLW (m3)

Zaporozhie

7,620

620

87

South-Ukraine

15,980

565

13

Rovno

5,780

1,020

63

Khmelnitsky

3,890

110

9

Total

33,270

2,315

172

Table 11.5 Radioactive waste at UkrSA ‘Radon’ plants as of mid-2008

SISP location

Amount

(m3)

Weight

(t)

Activity

(Bq)

Main radionuclides

Low and intermediate level solid waste

Kyiv

1,994

2,715

5.8 x 1015

137Cs, 239Pu, 60Co, 3H,

90Sr + 90Y

Dnipropetrovsk

433

1,101

6.0 x 1015

137Cs, 192Ir, 239Pu, 3H,

226Ra

Odessa

403

314

5.1 x 1014

60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, 3H,

90Sr + 90Y

Lviv

640

1,513

4.1 x 1012

137Cs, 239Pu, 60Co, 3H

Kharkiv

1,633

2,438

9.6 x 1012

137Cs, 239Pu, 60Co,

90Sr + 90Y

Low and intermediate level liquid waste

Kyiv

413

413

1.8 x 1012

137Cs, 60Co, 3H, 192Ir

Dnipropetrovsk

60

60

1.7 x 1010

137Cs, 60Co, 3H

Odessa

138

138

1.1 x 1011

14C, 3H

Kharkiv

10

10

2.3 x 108

137Cs, 60Co, 3H

Spent sealed radiation sources

Kyiv

7.2 x 1014

137Cs, 60Co, 3H, 192Ir

Dnipropetrovsk

4.5 x 1014

137Cs, 226Ra, 60Co,

192Ir

Odessa

1.5 x 1014

137Cs, 226Ra, 60Co,

192Ir

Lviv

3.6 x 1014

137Cs, 60Co, 192Ir

Kharkiv

3.5 x 1014

137Cs, 60Co, 192Ir

Spent sealed radiation sources of high power (RITEG)

Odessa

2.99 x 1016

90Sr + 90Y

nuclide composition of this radioactive waste corresponds to the nuclide composition of irradiated nuclear fuel of RBMK-1000 reactors with an average burn-up of 11,000 MW day t-1. At this rate, the ratio of activities of gamma — and beta-emitting nuclides to alpha-emitting nuclides is approxi­mately 100 to 1.

Two main radioactive waste sources can be defined in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ):

• radioactive waste generated during the operation of the four ChNPP units (Table 11.6);

• radioactive waste resulting from the accident at unit 4. Accidental wastes are located in the ‘Shelter’ object (Table 11.7) and in radioactive waste disposal points (RWDP) and radioactive waste temporary storage points (RWTSP) (Table 11.8).

Table 11.6 Radioactive waste of ChNPP

Category

Amount (m3)

Activity (Bq)

Main radionuclides

Solid radioactive waste

LLW

1,069

1.1 x 1011

Cs, Sr, Co, Pu, Am

ILW

926

4.1 x 1012

Cs, Sr, Co, Pu, Am

HLW

507

1.3 x 1014

137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 94Nb, [26]Eu,

152Eu, 241Am, 243Am

Liquid radioactive waste

LLW and ILW

20,260

3.8 x 1014

137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 238Pu,

239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am

Source: NatRep (2008).

Table 11.7 Radioactive wastes of the ‘Shelter’ object, its site, and the ChNPP site

Radioactive waste characteristics Category Amount

m3

t

‘Shelter’ object

Liquid waste — water in the ‘Shelter’

LLW and ILW

3,000

rooms

Fuel-containing materials — pieces of

HLW

3,000

the core and lava-like fuel containing materials Containers with pieces of the core

HLW

1,700

and others

Construction materials

HLW

121,000

Construction materials

LLW and ILW

330,000

‘Shelter’ object industrial site Concrete, concrete plates and units

HLW

1,500

Concrete, crushed stone, sand, gravel

LLW and ILW

280,000

ChNPP industrial site Concrete, metal, soil

LLW and ILW

500,000

Source: NatRep (2008).

394 Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up Table 11.8 Radioactive waste in RWDP and RWTSP of the exclusion zone

Title

Volume (m3)

Weight (t)

Activity (Bq)

RWDP (mainly LLW and ILW)

‘Buriakovka’

590,000

1,120,000

2.7 x 1015

‘The III line of ChNPP’

26,200

41,900

3.6 x 1014

‘Podlesny'(LLW and ILW)

7,040

14,080

2.5 x 1012

‘Podlesny’ (HLW)

3,960

7,920

2.6 x 1015

RWTSP (LLW and ILW)

‘Staraya stroybaza’

171,000

316,000

1.1 x 1015

‘Novaya stroybaza’

150,000

70,000

1.9 x 1014

‘Ryzhy les’

500,000

250,000

3.7 x 1014

‘Neftebaza’

102,000

181,000

3.7 x 1013

‘Stantsiya Yanov’

30,000

15,000

3.7 x 1013

‘Kopachi’

110,000

90,000

3.3 x 1013

‘Pripyat’

16,000

11,000

2.6 x 1013

‘Peschanoye plato’

57,300

91,700

6.4 x 1012

‘Chistogalovka’

160,000

150,000

3.7 x 1012

Source: NatRep (2008).

deposits, underground water) of the radioactively contaminated landscape. Table 11.8 gives the characteristics of waste in RWDP and the RWTSP.

Outside the ChEZ, in the Kyiv, Zhytomir, and Chernigov regions, there are several waste storage facilities built as a result of decommissioning and remediation activities in these areas. Their total volume of waste is 171,000 m3 and the total activity of these materials can be between 1 and 2 x 109Bq.

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