Current classification of RAW

The existing waste classification system in Ukraine has been derived on the basis of regulatory documents (RSNU, 1997; ADD, 2000; MSRU, 2005). RAW in Ukraine is subdivided into types, groups, categories, and kinds

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depending on the classification purpose. The following are key elements of the classification system:

• subdivision into solid and liquid waste,

• classification based on the generic waste acceptance criteria for radioac­tive waste disposal in different repository types; this classification includes short-lived waste, for disposal in near-surface or surface repositories, and long-lived waste, for disposal in a geological repository (Table 11.1),

• classification of solid radioactive waste by the ‘exemption level’ criterion (sec. 15.1.6 from MSRU, 2005),

• classification of solid radioactive waste (SRAW) and liquid radioactive waste (LRAW) by specific activity (Table 11.2),

• classification of RAW with unknown radionuclide composition accord­ing to the absorbed radiation dose rate in air at 0.1 m distance from the object (container) surface (sec. 15.1.8 from MSRU, 2005).

According to Ukrainian legislation, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is not declared as radioactive waste. According to Radiation Safety Norms of Ukraine (RSNU, 1997) waste from uranium mining processing, as well as waste resulting from mining other mineral products, is related to techno­logically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TE-NORM).

Table 11.1 Waste classification based on the criteria of acceptance for disposal

in different types of facilities

Waste

Potential radiation

Type of possible

Allowed waste

type

dose rate in 300

clearance from

disposal facility

years after the waste disposal

regulatory control during the period less than 300 years after the waste disposal

type

Short-lived

Below 1 mSvyr-1

Complete, limited

Surface or near-surface

Long-lived

Above 50 mSvyr-1

Not considered

In stable deep geological formations

Table 11.2 Classification of solid and liquid waste by specific activity

Category

Waste group

Liquid RAW specific activity

1

2 3 4

as a multiplier

of PCB і ngest

Solid RAW specific activity range (kBqkg-1)

unitsa

Low level waste

10-1-101

О

T

О

on

О

J

О

о

т

о

О

1-102

(LLW)

Intermediate level

101-105

102-106 103-1067 104-108

102-106

waste (ILW)

High level waste

>105

>106 >107 >108

>106

(HLW)b

a рсв і n9est — permissible level that limits specific volumetric activity of radionuclides in drinking water according to RSNU (1997).

b The HLW category is subdivided into two subcategories: ‘low temperature’ HLW with specific heat generation at the temporary storage or final disposal places not exceeding 2 kWm-3, and ‘heat generating’ HLW with specific heat generation of more than 2 kWm~3.

These kinds of radioactive materials are also not declared as radioactive waste.

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