Ukraine: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

V. SHESTOPALOV and I. SHYBETSKYI, Radioenvironmental Centre of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

DOI: 10.1533/9780857097446.2.386

Abstract: A succinct description of the experience of radioactive waste management in Ukraine, which accumulated when using nuclear energy and developed as a result of the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, is given in this chapter. In addition, the chapter summarizes the current state of the Chernobyl area contamination and the experience of Ukraine in decontamination and clean-up of the contaminated territories.

Key words: radioactive waste management in Ukraine, Chernobyl accident, decontamination and clean-up.

11.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the current state of radioactive waste (RAW) man­agement experience in Ukraine, which resulted from its nuclear energy programme, and developed following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). In addition, the current state of the Chernobyl area contamination and the experience of Ukraine in decontamination and clean-up of the contaminated territories is summarized.

Section 11.2 describes the main sources of radioactive waste in Ukraine and their current classification, and summarizes the information about the properties and amounts of accumulated waste. Section 11.3 describes radio­active waste management practices in Ukraine, including a brief summary of the legislation, responsibilities of various organizations involved, techni­cal policy, and funding of waste management in Ukraine. Section 11.4 gives a concise description of the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, Ukraine’s experience in decontamination and clean-up of the con­taminated territories, and the current state of radioactive waste manage­ment in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Section 11.5 sets out main modern organizational and technical problems in the field of radioactive waste (RAW) management. A description of Ukraine ’s recent initiatives aimed at solving the existing problems is given in Section 11.6. Sections 11.7 and 11.8 contain conclusions and a description of additional sources of information.

It should be emphasized that in preparing this chapter, the information regarding the quantity of radioactive waste and waste management tech­nologies was taken from official sources (National Reports of Ukraine, normative documents, etc.). As a result, the information may differ slightly from the data contained in sources of information published after 2009. This is particularly true regarding RAW from NPP.

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