Establishment of the unified state system of RAW management: the FSUE ‘RosRAO’

Prior to 2008, the united political system of the state management of RAW had to manage not only its basic role of developing state policy in the field of providing nuclear and radiation safety, but also a new and crucial func­tion of solving the broader problems of the entire nuclear system (both historical and contemporary).

In 2008, a presidential decree (‘On the Measures for the Creation of the ‘Rosatom’ State Corporation for Atomic Energy’) determined that Radon, the enterprise with special responsibility for collection, storage and process­ing of RAW across Russia should be transferred to Rosatom. The reorgani­zation of these enterprises on the basis of their relationship to the FSUE ‘RosRAO’ is now complete.

RosRAO was given the responsibility for managing the centralized collection and sorting of low and intermediate-level RAW, as well as their transport, conditioning and storage. The scope of the enterprise includes activities aimed at planning RAW volumes, developing technologies for RAW processing, designing and building units for final isolation, operating storage facilities, and remediating and monitoring, territories that were subjected to radioactive contamination. The law ‘About the management of radioactive wastes management’ gave RosRAO the functions of the national operator, and it now manages all the work and projects connected with solving the problems of accumulated RAW and other historical problems across the whole of the former USSR.

The Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Enterprise has been producing uranium fluorides since 1958. The area of contaminated facilities includes more than 100,000 m3 of buildings and sludge repositories containing RAW with an activity of more than 3,000 Ci. The most basic form of decommis­sioning, preservation, has been carried out here: i. e., accumulated RAW remains on the territory of the Kirovo-Chepetsk department of FSUE ‘RosRAO’. The preparation of the site for decommissioning requires the development of a decommissioning plan, the completion of scientific research, and the carrying out of crucial measures to guarantee safety. Full decommissioning will solve the problem of the existing RAW storage facili­ties, will remove contaminated buildings, and will create a new RAW storage site [35].

The remediation of sludge stores at the concentration unit of the former Novotroitsk mining plant constitutes another similar problem. The contami­nated area there is more than 9 hectares in size, with over 200,000 m3 of RAW (principally composed of 232Th with 20 Ci of activity). The purpose of recent work relating to this site includes the preparation of technical and up-to-date documentation to allow remediation of the contaminated site and the transfer of both the technological equipment and RAW in an eco­logically safe state. The average specific activity of the 232Th in the RAW at this site is 72 Bq/kg, 226Ra — 26 Bq/kg, 40K — 1100 Bq/kg. In the evaluation of the physical volumes and total activity of RAW, only the anomalies and the sites with known radioactive contamination were examined. The specific activity of 232Th is equal to 780 Bq/kg, which exceeds the levels judged to be minimally significant. Activities at this level are encountered in areas with irradiation fields of above 1.0 pSv/hour.

The results taken in the contaminated territory during the 2009 investiga­tion [36] identified 18 anomalies with an average specific activity 2,800 Bq/ kg. The total volume of the contaminated constructions due to be disman­tled was about 1,500 m3.

10.6 Conclusion

This chapter presents the author’s perspective on the principal aspects of RAW management in Russia. The problems connected with special features of radioactive waste accumulation in the former USSR were examined, with the Eastern Ural Track used as an example of the ecological threat posed by mistakes made during RAW processing.

A number of issues connected with the formation of the institutional RAW management system in the former USSR are discussed, including the establishment of the Radon system, the long-term isolation strategy, the different sorts of historical repository, and the restoration process for those repositories. The procedure for converting historical repositories into new long-term RAW storage repositories is also outlined.

A survey of contemporary technologies used in RAW management was carried out, including combined liquid RAW treatment, vitrification and plasma treatment. A large part of the chapter is dedicated to RAW cementa­tion technology as the basic industrial method of low — and intermediate-level LRAW conditioning. This technology requires low capital investment and operational expenditures and satisfies the quality requirements of the Russian Standard. The creation of the state system of RAW and RAM accounting and control is discussed in detail, along with broad coverage of questions concern­ing the legal aspects of RAW management in Russia. Moreover, the key ele­ments of the new federal law ‘On the Management of Radioactive Waste’ are presented, with particular reference to aspects affecting the construction and development of contemporary RAW management system.

A brief overview of territorial radiation monitoring and achievements in analytical control was provided. It should be noted that a multilevel system of radiation monitoring was organized in Moscow immediately after the events at Chernobyl NPP. The enormous volume of work on environmental radioactivity led to the development of analytical techniques such as the use of the liquid scintillation spectrometry method. The final part of the chapter focused on questions connected with the problem of the remedia­tion of territories contaminated with radionuclides.

This chapter has therefore demonstrated that Russia possesses the com­plete spectrum of activities and systems connected with the management of RAW, including treatment of spent fuel, nuclear fuel cycle, decommis­sioning liabilities and durable long-term storage of conditioned RAW.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *