Norms and legislation governing RAW management in Russia

The various relevant aspects of activity are separately regulated at the legislative level by federal laws such as ‘On the Use of Atomic Energy’, ‘On the Radiation Safety of the Population’, and ‘On the Sanitary-epidemiolog­ical Prosperity of the Population’, among others. Russia’s ratification of the united convention on the safe management of RAW and spent fuel shows that there is a general trend towards the creation and further development of the national normative lawful regulation of activity with regard to RAW management.

RAW treatment is currently regulated by the following standards and rules:

• ‘ Safety regulations regarding the rotation with radioactive wastes of atomic stations’ (NP-002-04),

• ‘ Collection, processing, storage and conditioning of liquid radioactive wastes. Requirements of safety’ (NP-019-2000),

• ‘ Collection, processing, storage and conditioning of solid radioactive wastes. Safety requirements’ (NP-020-2000),

• ‘Handling gaseous radioactive wastes. Safety requirements’ (NP-021-2000),

• ‘Health regulations for treatment with radioactive wastes’ (SPORO-2002).

The regulations in these documents are applicable to all nuclear facilities, radiation sources and RAW processing units, whether planned, in prepara­tion or operational. The set of documents listed above corresponds to the IAEA’s recommendations concerning the regulation of RAW management.

The transportation of RAW and RAM is governed by health and safety regulations regarding:

• the transportation of radioactive materials (NP-053-04),

• RAW treatment (SPORO-2002),

• The radiation safety of staff and population during transportation of RAM (substances) (SP 2.6.1.128 1-03).

These documents present the established principles of RAW and RAM transportation, and the requirements put in place to ensure the safe trans­port of RAW and RAM.

RAW storage is regulated by:

• ‘Rules on safety provision during the temporary storage of radioactive wastes, which are formed during the output, processing and use of min­erals’ (NP-052-04),

• ‘Collection, processing, storage and conditioning of LRAW. Safety Requirements’ (NP-019-2000),

• ‘Collection, processing, storage and conditioning of SRAW. Safety Requirements’ (NP-020-2000),

• Health regulations regarding RAW treatment (SPORO-2002).

Safety must be ensured during RAW storage in order to prevent staff, the general population and the environment from being exposed to radia­tion over the established limits both under normal operating conditions and in emergencies.

At the RAW disposal stage, safety measures aim to ensure reliable isola­tion of RAW, which in turn ensures radiation safety of the population and the environment for the whole period during which the RAW poses a potential hazard. The principal regulations regarding RAW disposal are:

• ‘Radioactive waste disposal. Principles, criteria and basic safety require­ments’ (NP-055-04),

• ‘Near-surface RAW disposal. Safety requirements’ (NP-069-06),

• ‘ Recommendations regarding the establishment of the criteria of the acceptability of conditioned RAW for their storage and disposal’ ([RB]-023-02),

• ‘ The safety evaluation of the near-surface repositories of radioactive wastes’ (RB-011-2000);

• Health regulations regarding RAW treatment (SPORO-2002).

These documents establish the principles, criteria and basic safety require­ments relating to near-surface RAW disposal, disposal into deep geological formations, and also for LRAW disposal. They establish a classification of near-surface disposals for RAW and make recommendations regarding safety evaluation methods for near-surface repositories. The regulations treat the methods used for RAW conditioning as a basic step in the prepa­ration of RAW for storage and disposal.

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