The state system for the accounting and control of RAW and radioactive materials (RAM)

The improvement and development of the state system for the accounting and control of radioactive material (RAM) helps to prevent the unlawful use of such materials and to facilitate radiation and environmental safety [ 27]. The national system of state accounting and control of RAW and RAM (NSSRMWAC) was created in accordance with Federal Law No. 170-FZ ‘Nuclear Power Use’ in November 1995. The purpose of the system is to register the existing quantities of RAM and RAW in their storage and disposal locations, to prevent loss, unauthorized use or theft of RAM and RAW, and to provide the national authorities and nuclear safety regulators with information regarding the availability, movements, exports and imports of RAW and RAM.

As per the Russian Government Decree No. 1298 of October 1997 on the Approval of Rules for the Organization of a National System of Accounting for Radioactive Materials and Wastes, the Russian Ministry of









10.9 Cementation by ash residue impregnation in 200 l barrel:

(a) experimental-industrial installation, (b) initial radioactive ashes, (c, d) container and probe, (e) end product (cement compound with filling of the ash residue to 70% by mass).

Atomic Energy (Minatom, later Rosatom) was appointed responsible for all activities associated with the functioning of the accounting system for RAM and RAW. During 1998-2000, Minatom prepared the key legal acts and procedural documents to ensure the successful creation and operation of this system, including:

• the Statute of State Accounting and Control of RAM and RAW in the Russian Federation,

• procedural recommendations for primary inventory checks of RAW and RAM,

• forms for the provision of accounting data relating to RAW and RAM, along with instructions for the completion of these forms,

• forms for federal statistic supervision 2-TP (for radioactive materials), 2 TP (for radioactivity) along with recommendations for completion.


This documentation allowed a primary inventory of RAW and RAM to be introduced on 1 July 2000, with information starting to be collected from sites and analysed since 1 January 2001. Functionally, the organization of the national system of RAW and RAM accounting and control (Fig. 10.10) includes three levels of authority: federal (Rosatom), regional (regional executive authorities) and departmental (federal executive authorities). Under this system, Rosatom acts both as a federal and a departmental authority.

10.10 Organizational functional diagram of NSSRMWAC.

The federal level of the accounting system shall provide:

• federal-level accounting of RAW and RAM;

• collection and analysis of RAW and RAM accounting information at the regional and departmental levels;

• formation of databases for the state cadastre of RAW, RAW storage and disposal sites, and contaminated territories that are within the area of responsibility of the supervising organization;

• organization of information exchange between the authorities that control the accounting system at the federal, regional and departmental levels;

• development of scientific, procedural and technical developments that help create, operate and enhance the accounting system, providing the results to organizations involved with RAW and RAM control account­ing at all levels;

• development of regulations and code documents (standard accounting forms for radioactive materials and waste, quantity and radionuclide composition measurement procedures, etc.), and, together with other federal executive stakeholders, of inter-compatible software for the databases;

• co-ordination of federal-level efforts;

• information for the federal authorities and nuclear regulators and other stakeholders regarding the availability, movement, imports and exports of radioactive materials and waste as required for these bodies to exer­cise their authority;

• management of the Information and Analytic Centre of the National System of Accounting and Control of Radioactive Materials and Radio­active Waste, providing information and analysis that helps the system to function at its federal level;

• co-operation with foreign nations on issues regulated by international agreements and programmes (projects) related to accounting of RAW and RAM.

The regional and departmental levels of the system perform similar func­tions scaled down to their areas of responsibility. Overall supervision of the system is entrusted to the Federal Service of the Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision of Russia (Rostechnadzor), which also licenses the corresponding forms of activity, and controls the observance of the estab­lished standards and rules for radioactive materials and waste management.

The system handles three flows of information. Information is supplied by every site, organization or subsidiary within 10 days of any operation involving the movement or change of status of RAM and RAW at its present location, transfer to other sites or legal persons, or receipt of RAM and RAW. This ensures that radioactive substances are tracked throughout the entire management process, from the time of generation through all movements between sites and enterprises up to their classification as RAW. Similarly, movements and transitions of RAW are also tracked through to their placement in long-term storage or disposal locations. As the move­ment of RAM and RAW requires that reports be submitted by both the transferring and the receiving party, the security of the RAM and RAW during transfers between legal bodies is ensured.

Annual reporting carried out by sites and enterprises using the forms supplied by the federal statistics services not only helps to monitor whether operations involving RAM and RAW are being reported correctly, but also further analyses additional information about radioactive releases and effluents, contaminated land, and so on. The periodic taking of inventories (performed annually for RAM and once every five years for RAW) helps in the generation of accurate data regarding the availability and character­istics of these materials at their storage locations, as well as collecting additional information about the characteristics of the storage locations.

The creation and operation of this system has vastly improved the accounting of RAM and RAW at Russian sites. Another important factor in this improvement was also played by the introduction of the federal regulation Main Rules of Accounting for Radioactive Materials and Waste in Organizations [28] in 2006; increased supervision by Rostechnadzor with regard to the observance of these rules also played a key role. The results of the analysis of the information stored in the national system of account­ing for radioactive materials and waste have been used for the production of a range of codes and guide documents, the most important of which is the Federal Program ‘Assurance of Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and until 2015’ and the Federal Law ‘On Radioactive Waste Management’.

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