Materials removal technologies

• Removal of vegetation.

• Removal of surface soil (e. g., standard or remote excavation; cryogenic removal; dust control).

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8.5 Soil washing plant in Kurchatov Institute (Russia).

8.4.1 Ex-situ treatment technologies

• Physical processes (e. g., physical retrieval; over-packing/re-packaging/ re-drumming; screening; soil washing; high gradient magnetic separa­tion; solidification; vitrification/ceramics; incineration; filtration/ ultra-filtration; reverse osmosis/membrane processes; solar evapora­tion); Fig. 8.5 shows a general view of the soil washing plant at Kur­chatov Centre (Russia).

• Chemical processes (e. g., chemical/solvent extraction; heap leaching; enhanced soil washing; enhanced soil leaching; chemical precipitation; ion exchange; electro-dialysis; adsorption; aeration).

• Biological processes.

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