Major incidents

In the course of nuclear weapons production and transport, there have been several severe accidents resulting in considerable contamination. These include Windscale Pile 1 (1957); Kyshtym (1957); Palomares (1966); and Thule (1968). The spread of contamination from civilian industries by acci­dent or by human ignorance are illustrated by the cases of Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) (Fig. 8.1), Goiania (1987) and Fukushima (2011). Table 8.1 shows a list of serious nuclear accidents rated according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It can be stated that accidents from level 5 up fall into the scope of this chapter (level 5 events necessitate at least some environmental control, and higher class events generally require environmental remediation). A comprehensive description of all the above-mentioned categories is given in Section 1.4.6 and IAEA (n. d.).

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