Waste form

The IAEA defines a waste form as ‘Waste in its physical and chemical form after treatment and/or conditioning (resulting in a solid product) prior to packaging.’ The waste form is a component of the waste package.

A wide range of materials are potentially suitable for immobilizing RAW in a waste form. For simplicity of describing the types of waste forms in terms of chemical or atomic incorporation vs. encapsulation/embedding and the various technologies by which these waste form materials can be made, the waste forms have been grouped into ten classes: [12]

Some waste forms are considered composites as they both atomically incorporate radionuclides and then these radio-phases are embedded or encapsulated in a secondary matrix.

Each class of waste form will be discussed in more detail in Section 6.4. Each waste class will have two tables associated with it. One table discusses the manner in which the radionuclides are sequestered (including a sche­matic), advantages and disadvantages of the wasteform, and the variety of immobilization technologies by which the waste form can be made. The second table provides examples of the waste form, the technology by which it is made, and references.

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