Waste immobilization is the conversion of a waste into a waste form by solidification, embedding, or encapsulation. The waste form can be pro­duced by chemical incorporation of the waste species into the structure of a suitable matrix (typically a glass, GCM, or ceramic) so that the radioactive species are atomically bound in the structure (chemical or atomic incorpo­ration) or encapsulated.

Chemical incorporation is typical for HLW. Cementation or other encapsulation/embedding technologies are typical for LLW or ILW.

Immobilization reduces the potential for migration or dispersion of radio­nuclides during handling, transport, storage, and/or disposal.

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