Overview of waste forms and conditioning technologies

A brief summary of glass, glass-ceramic, crystalline ceramic (mineral), cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant waste forms is given below and in Chapter 1. There have been many comprehensive reviews of waste forms and their properties [ 2-11] and this will not be elaborated on in this chapter except as examples of the different classes of waste forms discussed in Section 6.4.

This chapter will focus on the various technologies available to create the various types of waste forms and provide a cross-reference between the various processing technologies and each waste form. For example, a glass waste form can be made by Joule heated melting (JHM), advanced Joule heated melting (AJHM), plasma hearth melting (PHM), Hot Isostatic Press­ing (HIP), microwave heating, and hot and cold crucible induction melting (CCIM). Thus processing technologies will be related to conditioning tech­nologies that immobilize radioactive species either by atomic bonding or by encapsulation or a combination of the two (composite waste forms). The waste form and technology data is presented in tabulated form for brevity.

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