Radioactive waste (RAW) conditioning, immobilization, and encapsulation processes and technologies: overview and advances

C. M. JANTZEN, Savannah River National Laboratory, USA, W. E. LEE, Imperial College London, UK and M. I. OJOVAN, University of Sheffield, UK

DOI: 10.1533/9780857097446.1.171

Abstract: The main immobilization technologies that have been demonstrated for radioactive waste disposal are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability. Future waste generation is driven by interest in sources of clean energy. The development of advanced waste forms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced waste forms and processing technologies.

Key words: vitrification, cementation, bituminization, glass, cement, bitumin , waste form, advanced waste forms, conditioning, immobilization, encapsulation.

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