Other organisations and programmes

Other UN programmes, such as the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) [21] implement a number of initiatives aimed at remediation of contaminated sites in Central and East Asia. One of these projects is the ENVSEC Initiative (Environment and Security Initiative) ‘Strengthening Coordination of Project Formulation and Mobilization of Resource for Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia’. The latter is targeting contaminated sites with uranium tailings in the Kyrgyz Republic, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Tajikistan and Republic of Uzbekistan.

In addition to the above international organisations, regional organisa­tions and other groups are involved in initiatives concerning the regulation of nuclear, waste and radiation safety, e. g.: [5]

[28]) were established, as well as a Regulatory Cooperation Forum (RCF) for new countries entering into nuclear energy [29], etc.

At a national level, the different organisations that play a key role in the establishment and implementation of systems for management and control of radioactive waste can be summarised as follows:

• operators (such as NPPs, research facilities, medical laboratories) that produce and handle waste and their technical support organisations (TSOs, e. g., contractors);

• regulatory authorities that perform regulatory oversight during all steps of RAW management (it is also possible that these authorities use the services of dedicated TSOs);

• in some countries a dedicated radioactive waste management organisa­tion is established to deal with the pre-disposal management (e. g., COVRA in the Netherlands [30]), long-term management (i. e., storage and disposal) of this waste (e. g., ANDRA in France [31] ; SE ‘RAO’ in Bulgaria [32] ; PURAM in Hungary [33]; NWMO in Canada [34]) or even decommissioning of nuclear facilities (ENRESA, Spain [35] and NDA, UK [36]);

• financial authorities that in many cases control the national funds for radioactive waste management and decommissioning;

• research institutions that are involved in supporting research activities such as site investigation and understanding of the phenomena influenc­ing safety.

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