Global inventories of RAW

Radioactive waste has been generated in increasingly large amounts since the advent of the nuclear industry in the 1940s and 1950s. Contaminated environments have also been experienced from that era; a considerable number since the start of uranium mining, some from military-related activ­ities — both from processing plants associated with weapons production and weapons testing and from nuclear accidents, in particular Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima. The amount of RAW generated to date in non­military programmes is generally reported in the open literature, but that from military activities can only be estimated from weapons production activities. A review of the global inventory has been made by the IAEA and is summarised in Table 3.1 [4].

Waste source

Low — and intermediate-level waste (LILW)

Volume Activity <m3) (TBq)

Spent fuel3

HLWb

Mining & milling

Mass

(MTHM)

Activity

(TBq)

Volume

(m3)

Activity

(TBq)

Volume

(m3)

Activity

(TBq)

Nuclear fuel cycle

2.2 E6

1.2 E6

1.8 E5

2.8 ЕЮ

3.4 E4

4.2 E7

1.6 E9

2.8 E4

Institutional activities

1.1 E6

7.0 E5

Defence and weapon

4.0 E6

7.0 E5

8 E5C

3.1 E7C

2.5 E8

4.6 E3

Total

7.3 E6

2.6 E6

1.8 E5

2.8 ЕЮ

8.3 E5

7.3 E7

1.8 E9

3.3 E4

Подпись: © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013aln reality a relatively minor fraction of the spent fuel generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been reprocessed and has been transformed into a variety of products, including different classes of radioactive waste.

b A fraction of the HLW generated by reprocessing civilian spent fuel has been vitrified. Most HLW generated by defence programmes is stored in liquid form.

“Estimates are highly uncertain. In some countries there is no clear separation between reprocessing for military and for civilian purposes.

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