Low level waste (LLW)

This category comprises the wastes with radioactivity concentrations well above clearance levels, but with limited amounts of long-lived radionu­clides. A typical source of this waste is NPP operation and ‘as generated’ waste in various physical forms and of various chemical and radiochemical composition. Various radionuclides (fission products, activated products) are present in a wide scale of activity concentrations. Such waste requires robust isolation during handling and storage and containment for periods of up to a few hundred years (300 years is typically considered, based on ten times the Cs-137 half-life). After proper processing and containment, it is suitable for disposal in engineered near-surface facilities.

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