Near-surface disposal

Near-surface disposal sites are constructed anywhere from on the surface itself to up to 60 m below it. Such facilities with an EBS are suitable for most LLW and LILW and are widespread across Europe (e. g., Drigg in the UK, El Cabril in Spain) and are also used in the US and Japan. Globally we have decades of experience of operating such disposal sites. The EBS, which typically consist of clay or other barrier layers, is necessary to reduce the leach rate of radionuclides from the waste and to divert water away from the wastes. Water management is used during the operational phase of these facilities when the waste packages are uncovered as water cannot be allowed to accumulate within the waste cells. A typical system is shown schematically in Fig. 1.21 . Near-surface storage facilities are appropriate where wastes contain small amounts of short-lived wastes.

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