Disposal options

Options for disposal are indicated in Fig. 1.20 and depend to large extent on the content and half-life of radionuclides in the waste. Small contents and short-lived wastes may be suitable for near surface disposal (IAEA, 2002), while larger contents and long-lived radionuclides require deep or

image22

1.17 Open air CASTOR store for US SF.

Подпись: 0611-02-NDAПодпись: 50Подпись: All dimensions in mmПодпись: Sectionimage23

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Подпись: 900 Diameter 4- Standard features of waste package
Подпись: 900 Diameter ч : Standard features of waste package Подпись: 900 Diameter ч • Standard features of waste package

HLW waste package PWR SF waste package AGR SF waste package

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1.18 MPC options under development for UK SF.

1.19 Yellow boxes for storing ILW.

High-lev

el waste

Short-lived waste </1—

Intermediat

—- r’4> Long-lived waste

e-level waste

%

Low-lev

C®r/-

Exemption levels

l waste

Exemp

t waste

Half-life, years

1.20 I liustration of disposal and storage options for types of radioactive wastes.

very deep disposal, relying on the geosphere to keep the radioactive species from the biosphere (IAEA, 2003a; Ahn and Apted, 2010). As for the storage concepts described above, most geological approaches use a multi-barrier system to improve the safety of disposal where the waste form, container, near field environment (e. g., engineered barrier system, EBS) and far field environment (host rock) are all important in retaining radionuclides in the geosphere.

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