The VGM-P is a pilot industrial modular helium-cooled reactor designed by OKB Mechanical Engineering, Russia (Figure 14.4). It is based on a pebble bed design approach that can be fuelled on line. It is being considered as a heat source for the various applications above (Golovko et al., 1995, 1998).

Oil and coal refining require different temperature levels. The industry requires high-temperature capabilities for the production of diesel from coal and for the production of hydrogen and fertilisers, etc., intermediate temperatures for secondary reprocessing of oil products and cracking, and low temperatures for initial reprocessing of oil products.

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