The MRX is a small PWR suitable for low-temperature process and cogeneration applications, developed by JAERI. It is based on a similar approach to CAREM-25 except that forced coolant circulation and all steam generators are required during full power operation.

Decay heat is dissipated by a passive heat removal system. There is a comprehensive containment system with a large volume of water available in the containment.

The remaining two systems KLT-40C and SMART in Table 14.6 have already been described in the previous two sections on district heating and desalination applications.

The temperatures available in MRX, KLT-40C and SMART for process heat applications are similar to that of current PWRs.

It is also worth mentioning that there are some additional low-temperature process heat applications for which nuclear heating could also be considered, e. g. urea synthesis and wood pulp processing (Institute of Nuclear Engineers, 2004).

Future developments in process heat applications are focussing on higher temperature reactor systems. These are considered in Section 14.8.

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