LOW-TEMPERATURE PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS

In addition to district heat and desalination applications there have been various activities involving low-temperature process heat systems. Desalination is one such application, considered in the previous section.

This section considers some additional applications. These generally relate to the utilisation of process heating steam available from electricity producing reactors. Examples of various different industrial applications are given below (IAEA-TEC — DOC-1056, 1998).

The Gdsgen 970 MWe PWR in Switzerland provides process steam to a cardboard factory at an output of 54 MWt. The Stade 640 MWe PWR in Germany supplied process steam for a salt refinery; further excess energy was supplied for space heating of another oil fired station nearby and a tank storage facility.

In Canada, the Bruce nuclear power development (BNPD) is a large nuclear electricity and steam-generating complex. It includes eight CANDU units with a total power output of 7200 MWe. The four 848 MWe units of Bruce A in conjunction with Bruce bulk steam system (BBSS) supplied up to 5350 MWt of medium pressure steam for the heavy water plants (HWPs). Additional energy was also supplied to the Bruce Energy Centre (BEC) industrial park.

New low-temperature process heat applications are likely to be based on existing technologies, suitably optimised. In terms of new concepts, a novel process heating water application is under consideration within the Argentinean mining industry (Table 14.6).

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Figure 14.2. SMART reactor. 1: MCP(4); 2: drive support frame; 3: conrol rod drive(25); 4: annular cover; 5: pressuriser; 6: displacers; 7: steam generator(12); 8: shroud tubes; 9: reactor vessel; 10: core suppport barrel; 11: fuel assembly(57); 12: side screen. Source: Chang and Kim (1998).

 

Table 14.6. Process heating water reactors

Reactor

Type

Rating (MWt)

Country

CAREM-25

PWR

100

Argentina

MRX

PWR

Up to 300

Japan

KLT-40C

PWR

80 per unit

Russia

SMART

PWR

330 (Cogeneration)

Korea

Data from IAEA-TECDOC-1056 (1998) and IEA/OECD, NEA/IAEA (2002).

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