This is boiling water reactor concept considered for district heating and electricity supply developed by Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE), Russia (Zuznetsov et al., 1998). It builds on the successful operation of the boiling water reactor VK-50, located in Dimitrovgrad, Russia. Outlet steam temperatures are around 285°C and the plant pressure is 7 MPa. The plant operates via natural circulation. Reactor neutronics provide negative feedbacks between reactor reactivity, its power, fuel temperature and quality. These reactors include relatively simple features, passive cooling and small primary pressure units and are, therefore, suitable for underground operation.

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