The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) in China designed and has operated a low-temperature heating plant from the early 1980s (Dazhong et al., 1996; Zheng, 1998). This pool-type plant provided district heating to nearby buildings. Following this activity, a 5-MW thermal experimental vessel type reactor, NHR-5 was started in 1986 at INET and went into operation in 1989.

image075The NHR-5 has a number of new and innovative features, including natural circulation, passive safety systems, integrated geometry and hydraulic control rod drive systems. To ensure protection of users from radioactive contamination, an intermediate circuit was added. The operating pressure of the intermediate circuit is higher than the primary side to prevent any radioactivity release to the network.

Подпись: Protective

Подпись: compartment Подпись: Reactor lid Подпись: plate Подпись: Ground surface level

Headers and valves


Water1 level



Pnmary heatexchanger

Control rod driver


Подпись: Pool lining


Rock mass


Leek momtonng device

Figure 14.1. RUTA 55 reactor. Source: Adamov and Romenkov (1996).

A commercial scale NHR (NHR-200) with a generating capacity of 200 MWt has been developed since 1990, taking full advantage of the technology developed for NHR-5. Approval was given for building in 1995 at Daqing in China. The intention is that this technology can be applied to district heating, air conditioning, seawater desalination and other industrial processes.

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