PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

ADS can be classified into a number of different systems, depending on the nuclear energy spectrum, the form of fuel (solid or liquid), fuel cycle and the coolant/ moderator type. An important ADS design requirement for all systems and applications is inherent sub-criticality, reactivity stability and good neutron economy, the latter determining the power and cost. A summary of the various applications is given in Table 13.1.

Various fast and thermal neutron systems have been considered for both solid and liquid fuels and utilising different coolants, depending on the application. Systems that aim to take advantage of intermediate neutron resonances are also being considered, as are quasi­liquid fuel forms and other variations. Examples of some of the many different concepts are given in the next section.

Concerning accelerators, the Linac driven (linear accelerator) has been favoured for most concepts but the cyclotron-driven accelerator is also being considered in some groups (e. g. CERN). These are also addressed later in the chapter.

Table 13.1. Applications and benefits of ADS

Transmutation of nuclear waste and reduction of long-lived radiological hazard Utilisation of existing weapons grade plutonium for energy production Consistent with proliferation resistant fuel cycle management Utilisation of thorium resource for energy production Operational flexibility, offering sub-critical mode of operation

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