The status of selective national regulatory frameworks in relation to the design and safety of future NPPs is reviewed below (IAEA-TECDOC-905, 1996).

8.4.1 UK

In the UK for example (EUR 20055 EN, 2001), safety is governed by the Nuclear Installations Acts 1965 and 1969 (NII Acts) and by the ‘Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSW Act)’. These are supplemented by the Nuclear Installation Regulations, the Ionising Radiation Regulations and other Licensing Conditions. Regulatory Guides (non­mandatory) include the Tolerability of Risk (TOR) for Nuclear Power Stations (HSE, 1992) and the Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) (Harbison, 1992). These latter two documents are to provide guidance to NII Assessors in assessing Licensees’ safety cases but are not legislative.

The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) is responsible for preparing proposals for safety laws and standards approved by the Secretary of State for Environment (DOE). It advises the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) regarding regulatory matters in England and Wales and the Secretary of State for Scotland. The HSC is advised by the

Advisory Committee on Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The HSW Act is enforced by the independent UK Government Health and Safety Executive (HSE), under the HSC. The HSE is responsible for granting nuclear licences and the enforcement of the Health and Safety Laws. Licences and Inspections are administered by the UK NII who have the authority to withhold licences for nuclear plant operation.

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