Laws and statutes exist in most countries to ensure the safe operation of nuclear plant, see, e. g. EUR 20055 EN (2001) and EUR 16801 EN, ISSN 1018-5 (1996). Health and Safety laws are defined by government ministries, taking advice from various other supporting organisations. Safety standards are enforced by Safety Authorities and Regulators who grant licences for operation in accordance with national laws. These are reinforced by various international bodies, e. g. IAEA.

Internationally, IAEA principles have been established that govern the relationship between the regulator and operator. These are summarised in Table 8.1. These principles are embodied in the regulatory requirements of most countries.

In particular, these principles have played considerable influence in furthering the progress in the EU Enlargement countries from a closed safety culture to one of greater openness. Progress towards generally accepted international standards has also been

Table 8.1. IAEA safety principles (abbreviated form)

1. National governments shall establish a legislative and statutory framework for regulation

2. Prime responsibility for safety is assigned to the operator

3. Independence of the regulatory body from the operator

4. In all activities, safety matters have the highest priority

5. Establishment and implementation of appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) programmes

6. There are sufficient available adequately trained and authorised staff

7. The capabilities and limitations of human performance must be recognised

8. Emergency plans for accident situations must be in place and appropriately exercised

9. Site selection must take account of all relevant features affecting safety

10. The design must be suited to reliable, stable and manageable operation

11. Design shall include appropriate application of the defence-in-depth principle

12. Design technologies shall be proved by experience or testing or both

13. Man-machine interface and human factors shall be considered in design and operation

14. Radiation exposures to site personnel and to the environment shall be ALARA

15. The design shall be confirmed via comprehensive safety assessment and independent verification

16. Specific approval of the regulator is required prior to the start of operation

17. Operational limits must be defined from safety analysis, tests and subsequent operational experience

18. Operation, inspection, testing and maintenance must be conducted by adequately trained and authorised


19. Competent engineering and technical support to be available throughout installation life

20. Documented procedures must be established for anticipated operational occurrences and accidents

21. All plant operational incidents significant to safety must be reported to the regulator

22. All radioactive waste must be kept to a minimum (both in terms of activity and volume)

23. The design and decommissioning programme shall aim to limit exposures during decommissioning to


24. The operator shall verify by analysis, testing and inspection that the physical state of the instillation remains

in accordance with operational limits

25. Systematic safety assessments shall be performed throughout life

Govaerts (1996).

influenced by other international bodies, e. g. OECD and the EC (within the EU and EU Enlargement countries).

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