Both types of design require engineering and confirmatory testing. They may also need Research and Development (R&D) (Juhn, 1999). The amount of R&D and confirmatory testing will depend on several factors, the degree of innovation that is being introduced, the relevant work that has already been done and also the relevant experience.

These investments will be required for the design of the first plant in a line of evolutionary plants to be envisaged. For innovative plants, a prototype or demonstration plant will also be required. This latter requirement will result in the need for greater investment to meet the increasing cost of building a prototype plant as part of the development programme.

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