Categorization of the beyond design basis accidents for RBMK reactors

Based on the presented specifics of RBMK, two categories of Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA), i. e. core damage types in RBMK reactors were proposed by RBMK designers from Russia (Kurchatov Institute and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering) [8]:

• damage of the core or its components with the reactor maintaining its overall structural integrity;

• total damage of the core, resulting in the loss of general structural integrity of the reactor system.

Such grouping of accident is very important regarding accident management. If the core or its components remain structurally intact (first category of core damage), then the controlling actions (accident management) for limiting and delaying damage of the core, as well as prevention of confinement damage and mitigation of fission products release are possible. If the general structural integrity of the reactor system is lost, then depending on the degree to which the general structural integrity of the reactor is maintained, (second category of core damage), the emergency plan has to be activated in order to protect the public (sheltering, evacuation, etc.).

The first category of core damage can be further subdivided into the following accident groups (Fig. 5):

— no severe damage of the core (1.1);

— severe core damage accompanied by containment of the core fragments in the reactor core, accident localization system or other reactor buildings (1.2).

Accidents, leading to a complete reactor core damage, with loss of structural integrity of the reactor can also be divided into two groups [9]:

— accidents when heat-up of the reactor core occurs during reactor operation or within the first seconds after the reactor shutdown, when decay heat is high (2.1);

Подпись: V Damage of the core or its components with Total damage of the core resulting in the the reactor maintaining its overall loss of the general structural integrity of structural integrity the reactor system
image040 image041 Подпись: w

accidents when heat-up of the reactor core occurs after the reactor shutdown (2.2).

ж ■■

Ж ■■

r

Severe core damage

Accident when reactor heat-

accompanied by containment

up occurs after reactor scram

of the core fragments in RC or

(2.2)

ALS (1.2)

As it was mentioned, such grouping of accidents is the starting point for the development of the measures for accident management. However, the development of accident management guidelines requires performing deterministic analysis of all possible accidents in each group. Based on this analysis the accident consequences, available time for possible operator actions and possible modifications of emergency systems may be determined.

In the next chapter the deterministic analysis of reactor core and reactor cooling system is presented, whereas the modeling of the process in the RBMK confinement is presented in the monograph [10].

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *