Halogenated Derivatives

Besides iodine, compounds derived from halogens are produced by red and brown macroalgae (Butler and Carter-Franklin, 2004). Halogenated compounds appear as several classes of primary and secondary metabolites, including indoles, terpenes, acetogenins, phenols, fatty acids, polyhalogenated monoterpenes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (e. g., bromoform, chloroform, and dibromomethane) (Dembitsky and Rozentsvet, 1990; Butler and Carter-Franklin, 2004). In many cases, they possess biological activities of pharmacological interest, as emphasized in Table 10.6. These compounds may also play

TABLE 10.6 Bioactivities of Polyphenol and Halogenated Compounds Extracted from Spent Algal Biomass.

Compound Bioactivity Reference

Polyphenol

Phorotannins

Antioxidant

(Plaza, Cifuentes et al., 2008)

Radiation protection

(Yuan and Walsh, 2006)

Antiproliferative

(Cerantola, Breton et al., 2006)

Antibiotic

(Chandini, Ganesan et al., 2008)

Antidiabetes

(Kang, Park et al., 2003)

Anticancer

(Lim, Cheung et al., 2002)

Anti-HIV

(Zubia et al., 2008)

Hepatoprotective

(Li, Li et al., 2007)

Anti-allergic

(Sampath-Wiley, Neefus et al., 2008)

Plasmin inhibitor

(Zhang, Tiller et al., 2007)

Photo chemopreventive

(Yuan, Carrington et al., 2005)

Antibacterial

(Li, Qian et al., 2009)

Anti-inflammatory

(Zou, Qian et al., 2008)

Preventive against

(Yong, Zhong-Ji et al., 2008)

cardiovascular diseases

(Nagayama, Shibata et al., 2003)

Preventive against arthritis Preventive against autoimmune disorders

(Holdt and Kraan, 2011)

Fucol,

Antioxidant

(Garbisa, Sartor et al., 2001)

Fucophlorethol,

(Maliakal, Coville et al., 2001)

Fucodiphloroethol

G

Ergosterol

(Kang, Park et al., 2003)

Halogenated

Antibacterial

(Vairappan, Suzuki et al., 2001)

compound

Antitumoral

Antituberculosis

Cytotoxicity

(Fuller, Cardellina et al., 1992)

multifunctional ecological roles (Suzuki, Takahashi et al., 2002; Brito, Cueto et al., 2002). These kinds of compounds can be extractable by SFE or/and using solvents (Pourmortazavi and Hajimirsadeghi, 2007) or by pressurized liquid with solid-phase extraction (Onofrejova, Vasickova et al., 2010).

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