Category Archives: Bioenergy from Wood

Intensified Silviculture, Fertilization and the Carbon Footprint

One of the main reasons for growing bio-energy plantations is a reduction of the carbon emissions whilst obtaining energy benefits. Most of the intensive silvicultural treatments needed to ensure high levels of productivity in plantations (e. g. site preparation, weeding and fertilization — see Sect. 5.5) require some energy inputs. For example, fertilizer application uses fossil fuel based energy (and […]

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Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is defined as the thermochemical decomposition of organic materials in the absence of oxygen or other reactants executed under specific parameter conditions (Table 7.1). Several types of pyrolysis have been developed: vacuum pyrolysis (Roy 2000), pressurized pyrolysis (Tomeczek and Stanislaw 2003), fast pyrolysis (Bridgwater and Peacocke 2000), flash pyrolysis (Demirbas and Arin

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Nutritional Sustainability

The biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems has been well described for several forest ecosystems (Jorgenson et al. 1975; Likens and Bormann 1995; Ranger and Turpault; du Toit and Scholes 2002; Laclau et al. 2005, 2010a; Dovey 2012). Nutrients reside within forest and plantation systems in several nutrient pools that differ in size and in the form in which […]

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Sampling Techniques

Natural resource inventory is an expensive and time-consuming activity and full enumerations, where every tree in the population under investigation is counted and measured, are only done in exceptional cases. A discipline of science evolved around the methods to extract a representative subpopulation for measurement, as a cost effective replacement for full inventories. In essence a sub-sample of trees is […]

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Combretaceae Woodlands and Semi-arid Shrubland

Combretum and Acacia woodlands are found in patches in some parts of Southern Africa. In South Africa, Combreteaceae woodlands are dominated by Terminalia sericea which is usually found in association with other species. Terminalia sericea typically occurs on deep (>1 m) sandy soils, and may be nearly monodominant following disturbance (Scholes 2004). Shallower or rocky, infertile soils are domi­nated by […]

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Harvesting Biomass from Stumps

Stumps after harvesting represent a significant potential for increased utilization of bioenergy. But the utilization of stumps for energy in countries like Sweden and Finland is mostly constrained by ecological concerns of the physical, chemical and biological impacts on the soil (Lindholmet al. 2010). In Finland some 850,000 m3 of stump wood was utilized in 2009, and the production is […]

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Fermentation of Sugars to Butanol, Butanediol and Alcohol Mixtures

Butanol can be generated biologically by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermenta­tion. This metabolic route is present in bacterial species in the genus Clostridium such as C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii. ABE fermentation has been indus­trially applied using starchy biomass as an alternative to chemical synthesis from fossil-fuels. Similarly, the sugars present in lignocellulose hydrolysates can be fer­mented into 1.2-biobutanol, also known as […]

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Progress Up the Energy Ladder and Implications for Rural Users of Energy

The argument that fuelwood is not necessarily a preferred energy source but one forced upon the rural poor due to economic considerations, was mentioned briefly in the previous section. The main economic factors that drive the use of fuelwood in developing countries are the low costs of procuring fuelwood and the low income of consumers. Often the main cost associated […]

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Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI)

Inventory analysis involves data collection and calculation procedures to quantify the relevant inputs and outputs of a product system. The data collection can be a resource intensive process. For each unit process that is included within the systems boundaries the relevant inputs and outputs, such as use of resources and releases to air, water and land associated with the system, […]

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