Category Archives: Bioenergy from Wood

Case Study: IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

IKONOS was launched in September of 1999 in a 680 km high sun-synchronous orbit with a descending node crossing at approximately 10h15 local solar time. The IKONOS satellite simultaneously collects imagery in four multispectral bands and a single panchromatic band with 11-bit radiometric resolution. Data used in this project were collected by the IKONOS sensor on September 23, 2006. Rational […]

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Fire Management

Much of the current knowledge of fire and its effects on Zambezian Phytoregion structure and functioning has come from anecdotal evidence supplemented by information derived from limited number of experiments. The interest of focus among the early researchers has been more on later stages in changing of vegetation communities with emphasis on ecological groups (see Lawton 1978). However, several studies […]

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Loading and Unloading

Bulk trailers take on a number of forms. Rigid trucks with a tipping bed can be used without a trailer, but transport a limited volume. These trucks are compelled to wait during the loading process, but are agile on poor forest roads and have a short unloading time. For longer chip transport, semi-trailers fitted with reciprocating slatted floors, such as […]

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Impacts at the Landscape Level

The conservation of biodiversity and the use of scarce resources such as water are issues that belong at the landscape scale. The challenge is then to balance these impacts at the landscape scale and to ensure biological corridors/linkages in the indigenous vegetation that can facilitate the movement of individuals and genetic material. Evaluation of landscape scale impacts will also consider […]

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Bioenergy from Wood

This book was developed to provide a guideline for biomass production, procurement and energy production for scientists, practitioners, and decision makers who are interested in a value-chain perspective of bioenergy production from wood in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It was written as a collaborative effort of several specialists on the topic, with a core group at the Department of Forest […]

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Upscaling from the Tree to the Stand Level

2.1.2 Challenges The construction of statistical biomass models encompasses several challenges. Applicable models have to be accurate, which means precise and unbiased and should provide confidence limits to assess their applicability. Other typical issues are clustered data structures, heteroskedasticity of data and the desired additivity of biomass components. If sufficient data is available nonparametric fc-NN approaches have also shown to […]

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Harvesting Larger Percentages of Biomass from the Stand Than Conventional Practices

Biomass procurement per unit of land area can obviously be increase if whole tree harvesting is practised, rather than stem wood harvesting only. However, this relatively small increase in harvestable biomass per hectare comes with a relatively large export of nutrients. Several authors have constructed equations whereby bark, branch, and leaf mass and nutrient contents can be estimated from stem […]

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Gasification and Synthesis

Gasification involves the conversion of biomass into a combustible, non­condensable gas mixture by partial oxidation of biomass at high temperature (800-1,300 °C). The resulting gaseous mixtures consist mostly of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2) and traces of methane (CH4). Unlike bio-oil, incondensable biogas cannot be stored easily, safely or economically. Therefore, this low heating value gas fuel must be used […]

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