Category Archives: ADVANCED BIOFUELS

Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil by Reacting with Olefins and Alcohols over Solid Acids: Reaction Paths via Model Compound Studies

ZHIJUN ZHANG, CHARLES U. PITTMAN, JR., SHUJUAN SUI, JIANPING SUN, and QINGWEN ^VANG 5.1 INTRODUCTION Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted increasing attention because of decreasing oil reserves, en­hanced fuel demand worldwide, increased climate concerns, and the in­herent conflict between food prices and converting edible carbohydrates to ethanol or plant oils to bio-diesel [1-4]. Bio-oils, […]

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NONPOROUS MEMBRANES BASED ON ALKALINE AND ALKALINE-EARTH CERAMIC OXIDES FOR CO2 SEPARATION

Some researchers have proposed the use of alkaline and alkaline-earth ce­ramic oxides to prepare membranes that are able to separate CO2 at high temperatures via a different transport mechanism than those observed on porous membranes. Li2ZrO3 and Li4SiO4 based membranes are examples of the aforesaid. Permselectivity of CO2 through these membranes takes place not only due to the selective CO2 […]

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Analytical Approaches in the Catalytic Transformation of Biomass

What Needs to be Analyzed and Why? DMITRY MURZIN and BJARNE HOLMBOM 3.1 INTRODUCTION Today, the use of biomass is considered a promising way to diminish nega­tive environmental impact. Moreover, in some future scenarios, renewable raw materials are thought to be able to replace finite mineral-oil-based raw materials before 2050 [1]. This means that new synthetic routes, which should desirably […]

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Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Liquid Biomass for Biofuels Production

STELLA BEZERGIANNI 2.1 INTRODUCTION The depletion of world petroleum reserves and the increased concern on climate change has stimulated the recent interest in biofuels. The most common biofuels are based on energy crops and their products, i. e. veg­etable oil for Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) biodiesel [1] and sugars/ starch for bioethanol. However these first generation biofuels and associ­ated […]

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LIGNOCELLULOSIC LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS: ALTERNATIVE TO ETHANOL

The current biofuel market is largely dominated by ethanol, which ac­counts for 90% of world biofuel production. [19] Indeed, the rate of etha­nol production around the world is increasing rapidly, from 13 billion gal­lons in 2007 to the current level of almost 20 billion gallons in 2009, [20] with the US (55%, corn-derived) and Brazil (33%, sugar cane-derived) being the […]

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