Category Archives: ADVANCED BIOFUELS

Catalysing Sustainable Fuel and Chemical Synthesis

ADAM F. LEE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Sustainability, in essence the development of methodologies to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations has become a watchword for modern society, with developed and devel­oping nations and multinational corporations promoting international re­search programmes into sustainable food, energy, materials and even city planning. In the context of energy and materials […]

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Catalytic Constructive Deoxygenation of Lignin-Derived phenols: New C-C Bond Formation Processes from Imidazole-Sulfonates and Ether Cleavage Reactions

STUART M. LECKIE, GAVIN J. HARKNESS, and MATTHEW L. CLARKE The production of cellulose-derived chemicals is significantly more com­mercially attractive if economic value can be obtained from the lignin fraction of ligno-cellulose. There is currently great interest in research­ing the conversion of lignin to aromatics and alkanes. [1] These studies generally focus on the possible production of fuels, bulk, or […]

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CRACKING

As the molecules included in the various types of liquid biomass can be relatively large and complicated, cracking reactions are desired to convert them into molecules of the size and boiling point range of conventional fuels, mainly gasoline, kerosene and diesel. A characteristic reaction that occurs during catalytic hydrotreating of oils / fats is the cracking of tri­glycerides into its […]

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PYROLYSIS INTEGRATED WITH UPGRADING PROCESSES

Lignocellulosic biomass can be treated under inert atmosphere at tempera­tures of 648-800 K in a process called pyrolysis. At these conditions, solid biomass undergoes a number of processes including depolymerization, de­hydration and C-C bond breaking reactions which lead to the formation of reactive vapor species. [35] Upon subsequent cooling, the vapor products condense generating a dark viscous liquid referred to […]

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WASTE COOKING OILS CONVERSION TO PARAFFINIC BIOFUELS

Even though vegetable oils are the main feedstock for the production of first generation biofuels, soon their production has troubled the public opinion due to their abated sustainability and to their association with the food vs. fuel debate. As a result the technology hasshifted towards the exploitation of both solid and liquid residual biomass. Waste Cooking Oils (WCOs) is a […]

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PROPOSED REACTION PATHWAYS FOR MODEL BIO-OIL COMPONENTS

A complicated but clear reaction pathway is postulated and shown in Fig­ure 2 based on the detailed product analyses and discussions mentioned above. Under acid-catalyzed conditions, olefin protonation and subsequent proton loss and reprotonation steps generated the isomerized olefins and their cation intermediates. Simultaneously, a series of competing reactions occur, where bio-oil’s components (water, carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols) and […]

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HETEROGENEOUSLY CATALYSED ROUTES TO BIODIESEL

1.2.1 SOLID ACID CATALYSED BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS A wide range of inorganic and polymeric solid acids are commercially available, however, their application for the transesterification of oils into biodiesel has only been recently explored, in part reflecting their lower activity compared with base-catalysed routes [27], in turn necessitating higher reaction temperatures to deliver suitable conversions. While their activities are generally low, […]

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LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

These chromatographic methods use liquids such as water or organic sol­vents as the mobile phase. Silica or organic polymers as well as anion-ex­change resins are used as stationary phase. Separation is performed either at atmospheric pressure or at high pressure generated by pumps. The last version is often called high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with solvent velocity controlled by high-pressure pumps, […]

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