Category Archives: ADVANCED BIOFUELS

. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY

Phenol, water, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, D-glucose and 2-hydroxymethylfuran were mixed together and used as a model bio-oil to react with 1-octene/1-butanol at 120 °C for 3 h over each of the five catalysts: Cs25/K10, A15, A36, DX2 and SSA. Table 3 shows the 1-octene, 1-butanol and phenol conversions as well as the 1-octene isomerization and O-alkylation selectivities of these […]

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CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CO2 CATALYZED BY CERAMIC MATERIALS: THE USE OF NEW ALTERNATIVES

One of the most widely used chemical absorption techniques for carbon capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is CO2 adsorption by ceramic materials. Once CO2 has been captured-fixed, it can be converted into value-added products such as precursors in chemical transformation reac­tions. CO2 is extensively used for enhanced oil recovery, as a monomer feedstock for urea and polymer synthesis, in the food […]

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Introduction

The search for sustainable energy resources is one of this century’s great challenges. Biofuels (fuels produced from biomass) have emerged as one of the most promising renewable energy sources, offering the world a so­lution to its fossil-fuel addiction. They are sustainable, biodegradable, and contain fewer environmental contaminants than fossil fuels.

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BASIC ANALYTICAL METHODS 3..3.1 CHROMATOGRAPHY

Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are widely used today for analytical purposes. Chromatographic techniques are applied not only for off-line analysis, but also for the on-line determination of minute amounts, as well as large-scale preparative separations. In fact, not only monomers, but also polymers and oligomers can be separated by chro­matography, although in the former case it is essentially a group […]

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FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSIONS

The selected monoliths, primarily composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were coated with mixed metal oxide as an active catalytic phase and later inserted into the walls of the stove in the lower combustion chamber. These Al2O3 foams (porosity of10 ppi) consist of 92% a-Al2O3 along with the trace phases of mullite and cordierite. The results revealed that the catalyst was […]

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REACTION MECHANISMS

Several types of reactions take place during catalytic hydrotreatment of liquid biomass, based on the type of biomass processed, operating condi­tions and catalyst employed. The types of reactions that liquid biomass undergoes during catalytic hydroprocessing include: a) cracking, b) satu­ration, c) heteroatom removal and d) isomerization, which are described in more detail in the following section.

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PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON TRANSPORTATION FUELS FROM LIGNOCELLULOSE

4.4.1 BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) Biomass to liquids can be described as a renewable version of fossil fuel — based technologies like coal to liquids (CTL) and gas to liquids (GTL), involving the integration of two different processes: biomass gasification to syngas (H2/CO) and F-T synthesis. Even though both technologies are well known and relatively mature, integration remains a challenge […]

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RAW VEGETABLE OILS CONVERSION TO PARAFFINIC BIOFUELS

Vegetable oils are the main feedstock for the production of first genera­tion biofuels, which can offer several CO2 benefits and limit the con­sumption of fossil fuels. Raw vegetable oils consist of fatty acid triglyc­erides, the consistency of which depends on their origin (i. e. plant type) as shown in Table 2. Their production, however, is competing for the cultivated areas […]

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REACTIVITIES OF MODEL BIO-OIL COMPONENTS

In order to prove the feasibility of this upgrading process, more clearly outline the complicated reaction mechanism and probe the causes for cata­lyst deactivation, additional model reactions were investigated. Figure 1 shows the phenol conversions of phenol/1-octene reactions at 120 °C for 3 h over all five catalysts both with and without water present. All the catalysts exhibit high activities […]

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