Category Archives: ADVANCED BIOFUELS

HYDROGEN FEED-RATE

The hydrogen feed-rate is another important parameter as it also defines hydrogen partial pressure depending on the hydrogen consumption of each application. It actually favours both heteroatom removal and saturation re­action rates. However, as hydrogen cost defines the overall unit operating cost, hydrogen feed-rate is normally optimized depending on the system requirements. Furthermore the use of renewable energy sources for […]

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.2.1 CATALYST CHARACTERIZATION The silica sulfuric acid (SSA), prepared by reacting silica gel with chlo — rosufonic acid in dichloromethane was obtained as a white solid in 98% yield. Table 1 summarizes the physical properties (surface area, pore size, pore volume and acidity amount) as well as chemical compositions of SSA and other four catalysts. The specific surface area was […]

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APPLICATIONS OF CO2 PERMSELECTIVE CERAMIC OXIDE MEMBRANES FOR THE DESIGN OF MEMBRANE REACTORS

As mentioned, CO2 can be used as raw material for the synthesis of sev­eral chemicals [99]. Moreover, if CO2 is concentrated or separated by a membrane system exhibiting high CO2 permeation and permselectivity, this open up the possibility to develop a continuous process of membrane reaction to simultaneously capture and chemically convert CO2. For exam­ple, if the membrane is able […]

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Acknowledgment and How to Cite

The editor and publisher thank each of the authors who contributed to this book. The chapters in this book were previously published in various places in various formats. To cite the work contained in this book and to view the individual permissions, please refer to the citation at the begin­ning of each chapter. Each chapter was read individually and carefully […]

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ANALYTICAL OBJECTIVES

Any planning of analytical procedures should be based on the goals and scope of the study. The following critical steps in an analytical process can be listed: problem definition and formulation of analytical objectives; set­up of an analytical plan; sampling; sample transport and storage; sample pretreatment; analytical determination; data calculation; evaluation of re­sults to see if the objectives are achieved.

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TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATALYTIC HYDROTREATMENT

The catalytic hydrotreatment of liquid biomass converts the contained triglycerides/lipids into hydrocarbons at high temperatures and pressures over catalytic material under excess hydrogen atmosphere. The catalytic hydrotreatment of liquid biomass process is quite similar to the typical process applied to petroleum streams, as shown in Figure 3. A typical cata­lytic hydrotreatment unit consists of four basic sections: a) feed prepara­tion, […]

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ROUTES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS FROM BIOMASS

The main pathways for the production of liquid transportation fuels from biomass are shown in Fig. 4. As indicated in previous sections, food crops such as corn grain or sugar cane can be converted into ethanol by fer­mentation processes. Alternatively, second generation ethanol can be pro­duced from lignocellulosic sources by means of pretreatment-hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of soluble sugars. Butanol, […]

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FEED SAND PRODUCTS

Even though liquid biomass is currently being exploited as a renewable feedstock for fuels production, its characteristics are far beyond suitable for its use as fuel. More specifically liquid biomass, just as other types of biomass, has a small H/C ratio and high oxygen content, lowering its heat­ing value and increasing CO and CO2 emissions during its combustion. Moreover liquid […]

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