Category Archives: Fuels and Chemicals. from Biomass


Processes for production of fuel-ethanol from lignocellulosic materials involving micro-organisms and biomass are very complex. Therefore, it can be difficult to design a full-scale or even a pilot-plant facility based on lab-scale data only. One of the most efficient ways of assessing the technological and economic feasibility of such processes is through the use of techno-economic computer modelling. Since a […]

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Lignin conversion

Lignin is a long chain heterogeneous polymer composed largely of phenylpropane units most commonly linked by ether bonds. It effectively protects the woody plants against microbial attack and only a few organisms including rot-fungi and some bacteria can degrade it (57). The conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fuels and chemicals will generate lignin as a by-product that can be […]

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Process Development and Optimization

It is still an open question if the enterobacteria of the genera Klebsiella and Citrobacter or the Clostridia are more suitable for a 1,3-PD production process. From the viewpoint of an interested company there will probably be a preference for the clostridia as both enterobacterial species are classified as opportunistic pathogens and thus would require costly safety precautions. On the […]

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Blending of Esters

Blending conventional DF with esters (usually methyl esters) of vegetable oils is presently the most common form of biodiesel. The most common ratio is 80% conventional diesel fuel and 20% vegetable oil ester (also termed “B20,” indicating the 20% level of biodiesel; see also list of biodiesel demonstration programs in Ref. 6). There have been numerous reports that significant emission […]

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Bioethanol: A National Strategic View

In the traditional jargon of strategic planners, organizations and programs are often called upon to do a "situation analysis" (7). For this type of analysis, planners scan the environment outside and within their organization to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to it. This is the first step in identifying strategies for success. Strategic planning has clearly lost the allure […]

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